Photo of Paco Elvira made to the scale at the start of the Freedom March
The magazine saline Suria published on 12 September 2006 an article recalling the Freedom March. Article signing the Amadeu Vives, but made contributions of people at that time were heavily involved in the march. The article stated the following: Albert Castellano, Magda Esquius, Alfonso Villa, James and Joseph Pubill Peramiquel.
I thought it would be useful to be able to get an idea of the atmosphere was like in 1976 and how things went. Today we publish the news explaining how things were going and one day will finish with personal memories of two people: those of Albert Castellano and my own memories.
He has 30 years of Freedom March for summer 1976
Half a year after the death of General Franco, Catalonia experienced a significant share of demand that scoured the country. Suria also had his episode. In the following report published by The Saline zoom in on those moments.
In 1976 Spain began a timid political opening. Franco did a few months had passed. The King had ratified the chairman of the central government to Carlos Arias Navarro, who had been appointed by the dictator until he was replaced by Adolfo Suárez González in June of that year, which drew up a Political Reform Act .
The woman could not open an account or get a passport without the permission of the man. Contraceptives were prohibited. Adultery is punished with prison sentence for 350 women fulfilled this. The judges were all men and custody of the children had a father. Most of the age was 21 years.
The Catalan was restricted to the private sphere, and its use in public administration was nil. That year, however, by St. George first came out entirely in Catalan daily from the end of the Civil War's Today. On September 5, Joaquim M. Puyal made the first radio broadcast of a football match in Catalan. Lluís Llach, Raimon, Montllor Ovid, María del Mar Bonet other singers of the new song or song of protest filled halls and pavilions. It became very popular six-hour song Canet. The Stake, or should we say the wind became anthems of resistance. The recitals were places where the public spontaneously, mostly young, throwing slogans in favor of the reinstatement of individual and collective. Mainly chanted the famous "Liberty and Amnesty Statute of Autonomy." Often out there fighting with riot police Armada.
Indeed the Assembly of Catalonia was successfully organized large demonstrations on the 1st and 8th of February in Barcelona with such slogans as background. Some demonstrations were harshly repressed by the police, the gray, the name popularly known them because of the color of their uniforms.
In fact, the police, civil guard or right-wing charge harshly repress any attempt to be timid, recovery both in political and democratic union, arrests and torture were common in police stations. The parties and unions were all illegal although some of the more moderate, began to be seen publicly.
That year they formed political parties such as the Democratic Coalition, the Socialist Party and the Popular Alliance, predecessor of the current Party, among others, along with those who were already illegally, formed the conglomerate's political transition.
In this context, Pax Christi, an international Catholic peace movement in Catalonia linked to conscientious objection and complaint of torture, launched the idea of organizing the March of Freedom this summer, which should visit the Catalan region in order to promote meetings, rallies and events national and democratic demands of the Assembly of Catalonia.
Get people to Catalan Walk
This phrase would become the core of the movement continued to Catalonia. Gradually it began to emerge that idea and put it into practice. March 12 is officially presented the proposal and gave the public the text of the announcement:
"We call on all people to participate in the Catalan Freedom March that the regions of the Catalan resort this summer on a desire for freedom and peace, will launch a non-violent target people of all ages, of all trends and conditions.
From a postulated minimum freedom, March wants to connect with the reality of every part of the Catalan Countries, revealing and even encouraging a process of discussion, criticism and mobilization of our people to liberation.
We understand that in our country this postulate is based on freedom: Amnesty for all political prisoners and prisoners of conscience, freedom understood as situations where the basic rule of coexistence is the respect of the Rights of Man and the Statute of Autonomy of 1932 as a first step towards self-determination for Catalonia. "
As the project was taken body and extended its distribution to all layers of society they became increasingly adhering bodies: cultural, hiking, sports, neighborhood, political parties, unions and many will begin to organizations, as well as leaders and personalities from the world of culture and politics.
Louis M. Xirinacs, a known activist nonviolence in favor of amnesty for political prisoners and exiles, also called for active participation in the preparation and implementation of the March.
The statement comes at Suria
In April 1976 the release of the March arrives at Suria Mountain Center, an organization which at the time was led by very young people: the Board had been elected a few days ago. Establishing a discussion among his supporters do join the march and argued that the bank had to stay out of politics.
The first proposal is ultimately imposed and Hiking at that time was domiciled in the basement of the street Gonzalez Solesio, no. 25, offered its premises for the preparation of the local dealer, who became the first political protest held in Suria after the Civil War.
Held a series of meetings with the participation of many people, mostly young people influenced by the desire to do something to reach lost liberties and denied both times by the Franco dictatorship. Some few, some were militant political organization, other members of the village and most organizations acting individually. They organize various committees: publicity, supplies, and other contacts.
The march is banned
On May 22, Radio Nacional de España issued a statement from the Ministry of Interior, headed by then-Manuel Fraga Iribarne, which prohibits the completion of the March, alleging that can seriously disrupt civic coexistence and not offers minimum guarantees of security in addition to altering ordinary life of the people which would happen in a time of national and foreign tours so that could embarrass. Consequently stated that maintain public order and disavows any advertising.
Pax Christi and the organizations and parties that support the initiative, far from scared they maintain the proposal and call for the Freedom March. Since then, however, takes on a whole new dimension should take into account, would clandestine meetings and activities.
The local Mountain Center Suria no longer offered enough security. It was a very central location and its activities were well known. So it was necessary to find a new meeting place to continue preparations. Was decided by the local rectory at St. Anthony Street M. Claret 14. The church was more committed to basic movements and neighborhood recovery of individual and national freedoms of the people. Far from the official position of part of its hierarchy still anchored in the church for years supported the dictatorship of General Franco
Preparations continued on, now with the support of the priests and the rector of the parish at that time. He edited using own propaganda machine masters that were in the rectory. The slogan is printed in Suria walks leaflets, stickers and leaflets. A few days before the arrival of the March on Suria became the first protest of the painted slogan "Liberty, Amnesty and Statute of Autonomy."
Structure and outcome of the March
Between 1 and 3 July Freedom Walk began in six different locations in the Catalan Countries. The'll leave were organized into six columns took different names: North (initiated in L'Escala) Lluis Companys (which began Oliana which is what happened to Suria) Francesc Macia (start Esterri Àneu) by Rafel Casanova (La Senia), Abbot Aureli (Girona) and Valencia (begun in Guardamar). Northern Catalonia is also created another small column, which bore the name of Joseph Trinxeria resistant.
The policing at these sites was large and repression was disturbed by some acts that had no purpose other than the claim about the democratic rights of peaceful and non-violent way possible.
The stake was reduced to a few fixed'll leave varies by column and the dates and places you went through. The arrival of participants march in cities and towns aroused the curiosity of many people and many people join each site.
The controls police and Civil Guard were on the road constantly and loads of police against demonstrators as well. However the Freedom March did not stop at any time and reached all corners provided.
The end of March, on September 12, are scheduled to converge Poblet where all columns. Again, despite a strong device of the Civil Guard, I will leave them managed to enter the monastery, where they celebrated the closing.
That year the Assembly of Catalonia had obtained government permission to hold the first Day of September Eleventh. Had to do in Barcelona Ciutadella Park but eventually moved to Sant Boi de Llobregat, a place where he is buried Rafael Casanova. A few hundred thousand people to celebrate the first National Day of Catalonia released, although watched by law enforcement, after the dictatorship. If there were speeches in favor of the postulates of the Assembly of Catalonia and sang The Reapers.
The march reaches Suria
On 11 and 12 August the march arrived at Suria. The previous day was observed as a strong monitoring by the Guardia Civil, who waited seven or eight I will leave that integrated column Lluis Companys: That day they stopped in Callús where, away from the intervention forces public order, were able to perform certain acts on behalf of Liberty, Amnesty and the Statute of Autonomy.
At Suria got there at midday on August 12: On the road tucked next to Antiu Callús from the Pit IV and Plan of Orchards. From there, a couple of cars were brought to the rectory where some activists hoped the people.
The site chosen to perform acts in favor of the march was the Plaça de Sant Joan. The slogan was that at 7 pm everyone gathered in the phone booth in the square. A bus full of policemen were stationed outside the cabin mentioned.
A while before most people started finding the rectory and from there, along with members of the fixed column, a total of 25 people, they decided to go together to the Plaza.
The street was full of people walking up and down the sidewalk. The rally left the rectory headed by a Catalan flag, into Calle San Antonio M. Claret and down the stairs Sanglas Martin Street, overlooking the Plaça de Sant Joan. The circumstances were that just reach the bottom of the stairs, where the policeman would have been approaching the group, a bus line took a turn to enter the square, when the protesters were hidden behind the bus, so when they came towards Manresa demonstrators were already in the middle of the square.
At that time the expectation was maximum. People walking along the sidewalk stopped to watch what was happening. The policemen left their bus in a jiffy, surrounding protesters (at that time they were armed with a gun model "CETME" and cartridge and gun). They said they did not move anyone Lieutenant Line on the way and that was what he had to give the orders. The wait was very long.
Angel Colon and Colon, known years later as activist call for solidarity, and then parliamentary Secretary General of the Republican Left of Catalonia, ERC, as visible head of the column was severely increpado one of the guards tightened by the long beard wearing at the time and asked him to tell where he was leader Louis company, in a clear confusion with the name of the column. Another member of the column was fixed and James Collell Obrador of Telefonos de Collell. Was living in Barcelona but the son of an old and well-known family surienca.
Was concentrated among the vicar of the parish of Suria, James Pubill. Addressing the guards intervened, identifying himself as a priest, and telling them just wanted to make a small speech and then we leave. The response was overwhelming Police stressing him to shut up or he would if there was more slapstick than potatoes.
The lieutenant who commanded the forces ordered to disperse the demonstration with the words "When a group of more veais of four, atizadles fuerte ... and fired!.
At that time took a decision very fast. Pubill to a proposed seated on the floor of the square, which was not accepted by fear of repression. He also said the protest moved to the Old Town Square, but finally decided to do it inside the Church of St. Christopher, St. Anthony Street M. Claret.
The surienc Albert Castellano was arrested and taken inside the bus civil guard, only to have joked in a discussion of the situation on the street.
Then in small groups, became more spreading and communicating the message to people that after a while everyone is concentrating on the interior of the church. Many people came to a small side door that was between the theater and the Promotion aisle of the church. Others entered the main gate.
The event took place as normal, with an attendance of 400 and suriencs surienques. It made a speech in favor of the March and postulates defended comprises a sheet with local demands and sang The Reapers and the Stake.
The policeman once aware of the event at the church, made an appearance on the street to identify the participants, which could do for the amount of people that came out of it. I will leave the Suria and activists took refuge in the rectory to the door that leads inside. There we were up late at night because the policeman on several occasions tried to enter to stop or identify'll leave, which was prevented by the then rector of the parish Serrasolsas Francis of Assisi. Even a surienc - the neighbor Celestine Street West to Gómez-led siege to the rectory with a chocolate pot, passing through the policing.
After a while, seeing that the activists did not leave, they asked the identity of a member of the group. The young age of military service were going to be afraid to provide information to potential reprisals. At the end were two girls and some of the fixed'll leave that to their identity cards which made it possible to withdraw the surveillance of the street. Finally, Suria activists marched home and they'll leave the night in the rectory.
Other support surienc
Even days later, I will leave again require the help of activists Suria. The reason was moving between Solsona and Cardona. A few cars came to assist them, the meeting place was the place then known as "the Merendero Cardoner" shortly after Cardona. There were gathered and had to get to Solsona. In Santa Ponsa, a roadblock stopped the vehicle and arrested the'll leave suriencs drivers of the vehicles were also detained a few hours. They argued that they had taken the'll leave hitchhiking and knew nothing of his activities, so soon after they were released back to Suria due to fear.
Catholic movement emerged in postwar Europe proclaiming the reconciliation of peoples and advancing social justice, that is mobilizing for amnesty and freedom. At its heart, it is proposed to make a summer 1976 launch for the Catalan regions not only amnesty but claims to help "establish a foundation of liberty and popular sovereignty," connecting all the four points of the Assembly of Catalonia.
Assembly of Catalonia
Formed in late 1971, is a unified platform for parties, trade unions and civic organizations, which has the political virtue of having established a minimum program that everyone accepted the four points: amnesty, freedom, independence and coordination with other forces democratic state. Are summarized in a cry, and all the political slogans of the era, will be exciting, "Freedom, amnesty Statute of Autonomy."
Strategy of active struggle against injustice, using media that favor the advent of justice, rather than the violence that often aggravate conflicts. Consistency between ends and means is the quality that enables a true conflict resolution, so that they are not rancor. Despite the attractiveness of nonviolent actions such as demonstrations, resignations, repairs, strikes, boycotts, sit, jobs, chains, etc.., We must also understand Nonviolence as a lifestyle where personal coherence, inner strength peacemaking and attitude extends to all areas.
Local public life
In 1976, the town was ruled by the last council before the first democratic elections were in 1979. Mayor Suria, since 1974, Matthew was Spanish and sweaty he was informed of the details and organization of the Freedom March in Suria, prior, by representatives of local activists. At that time the main problems were the municipal bridge project that would connect Salipota the core of this district Suria growth process and fix the flawed system of water supply to the population.